What Is the Name of the Agreement Made by Russia with China

The authoritative version was in Latin, with translations into Russian and Manchu, but these versions differed considerably. There was no official Chinese text for another two centuries,[2] but the border marks were inscribed in Chinese with Manchu, Russian, and Latin. [3] The treaty defines the broad lines to be used as a basis for peaceful relations, economic cooperation and diplomatic and geopolitical dependence. It is controversial that Article 9 of the treaty can be considered an implicit defense pact, and other articles (A7 and A16) point to enhanced military cooperation, including the exchange of “military know-how” (A16), namely Chinese access to Russian military technology. Similar to other previous agreements between Russia and China, the treaty was negotiated under general terms of equality and reciprocity. He granted the Russians trade rights in the region, indicating trade routes, the seasons during which trade was allowed, storage facilities, as well as the location and number of official residences. He also noted that during their stay in the territory, Russians were not subject to Chinese law, but could be under the control of their own consul in Chuguchak (now Tacheng) and Kuldja, the city where the treaty was signed and the largest city in the territory. The treaty was followed by accelerated Russian expansion into Central Asia. Russian interest in Love was revived in the 1750s. In 1757, Fedor Ivanovich Soimonov was sent to map the region. He mapped the Shilka, which was partly on Chinese territory, but was rejected when it reached its confluence with the Argun. In 1757, Vasily Fyodorovich Bradishchev was sent to Beijing to study the possibility of using Love. He was warmly welcomed and given a clear no.

After that, the case was dropped. [19] The agreed boundary was the Argun River in the north to its confluence with the Shilka River, the Shilka to the Gorbitsa River, the gorbitsa to its upper course, and then along the east-west watershed through the Stanovoy Mountains and the Uda River (Khabarovsk region) to the Sea of Okhotsk at its southwest corner. MOSCOW, June 28 (Reuters) – Russian President Vladimir Putin and his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping announced on Monday the extension of a 20-year-old treaty of friendship and cooperation between their countries, both of which have strained relations with the West. The Qing Dynasty wanted to drive the Russians out of Love. They were interested in Love because it was the northern border of the original Manchu heart. They could ignore the area west of the Argun, as it was then controlled by the Oirats. The Kangxi Emperor of China also wanted to settle with Russia to free his hands to deal with the Dzungar Mongols of Central Asia in the northwest. [10] [11] The Qing Dynasty also wanted a demarcated border to prevent nomads and outlaws from fleeing across the border.

[12] The agreement was signed in Nerchinsk on August 27, 1689. [1] The signatories were Songgotu on behalf of emperor Kangxi and Fyodor Golovin on behalf of Russian tsars Peter I and Ivan V. The Treaty had six paragraphs: 1 and 2: definition of the border, 3. Albazin must be abandoned and destroyed. 4. Refugees who arrived before the contract to stay, those who arrive after the contract to be returned. 5. The exchange of appropriate documents shall be permitted. 6. Boundary stones to be erected and general warnings to avoid conflicts. At that time, Russia could not send large forces to the Far East and began a war with the Ottoman Empire. At the same time, the Dzungars conquered Mongolia and threatened the Qing Dynasty, so Russia and the Qing Dynasty were inclined to sign a peace treaty as soon as possible.

[15] The treaty was “a triumph of intercultural negotiations” that gave the Russians access to Chinese markets for expensive furs; The Russians bought porcelain, silk, gold, silver and tea, as well as provisions for the garrisons in the north. [17] Cross-border trade has created a multi-ethnic character in Nerchinsk and Kyakhta in Siberia. They have become arenas for the interaction of Russian, Central Asian and Chinese cultures. Trade extended Europe`s economic expansion deep into Asia. Profitable trade declined in the 1720s because the policies of Peter I restricted private initiative and ended Siberia`s role as an important economic link between West and East. After its first victory at Albazin in 1685, the Qing government sent two letters to the Tsar (in Latin) proposing peace and calling on russian buccaneers to leave Amur.[18] The Russian government, which knew that Love could not be defended and paid more attention to events in the West, sent Fyodor Golovin to the East as plenipotentiary. Golovin left Moscow in January 1686 with 500 Streltsy and reached Zelenginsk near Lake Baikal in October 1687, from where he sent letters. It was agreed that the meeting would take place in Zelenginsk in 1688. At that time, the Oirats (Western Mongols) under Galdan attacked the Eastern Mongols in the region between Zelenginsk and Beijing and negotiations had to be delayed. To avoid fighting, Golovin moved east to Nerchinsk, where it was agreed that talks would take place. Qing troops with a size of 3,000 to 15,000 soldiers under Songgotu`s command left Beijing in June 1689 and arrived in July. The talks lasted from 22 August to 6 September.

People stand under a giant screen sending images of Chinese President Xi Jinping participating in a video conference with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Beijing, China, June 28, 2021. REUTERS/Tingshu Wang Addressing Xi by video conference, Putin said the China-Russia friendship treaty, signed in 2001, enshrines the two powers` support for defending national unity and territorial integrity at a time when Moscow and Beijing are at odds with Western countries on various issues. Later, in 1727, the Treaty of Kiakhta established the current border of Mongolia west of the Argun and opened the caravan trade. In 1858 (Treaty of Aigun) Russia annexed the country north of Amur and in 1860 (Treaty of Beijing) took the coast to Vladivostok. The current border runs along the Argun, Amur and Ussuri rivers. From about 1640, the Russians invaded the Amur Basin from the north, the land claimed by the Qing Dynasty, which at that time was just beginning the conquest of the Ming Dynasty. The Qing had completed the actual conquest of China in the 1680s and eliminated the last successor states of the Ming in the south. [4] Now under China`s control, the Qing Dynasty was able to cope with what they saw as a Russian encroachment on Manchuria, the former home of the ruling Aisin Gioro clan. [5] By 1685, most Russians had been expelled from the region. See Sino-Russian border disputes for more details. Putin held a summit with his U.S.

counterpart Joe Biden earlier this month, where they decided to work together in some areas despite their strained relations. When Adam Johann von Krusenstern visited Canton in 1799, he saw an English ship that had brought furs from Russian America in five months, instead of two years or more for the Okhotsk-Yakutsk-Kyakhta route. He saw that this could replace land trade. .